LEASES

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Section 20

Leases

Scope of this section

  1. 1 This section covers accounting for all leases other than:
    1. leases to explore for or use minerals, oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources (see Section 34 Specialised Activities);
    2. licensing agreements for such items as motion picture films, video recordings, plays, manuscripts, patents and copyrights (see Section 18 Intangible Assets other than Goodwill);
    3. measurement of property held by lessees that is accounted for as investment property and measurement of investment property provided by lessors under operating leases (see Section 16 Investment Property);
    4. measurement of biological assets held by lessees under finance leases and biological assets provided by lessors under operating leases (see Section 34);
    5. leases that could lead to a loss to the lessor or the lessee as a result of contractual terms that are unrelated to changes in the price of the leased asset, changes in foreign exchange rates, changes in lease payments based on variable market interest rates, or a default by one of the counterparties (see paragraph 12.3(f)); and
    6. operating leases that are onerous.
  1. 2 This section applies to agreements that transfer the right to use assets even though substantial services by the lessor may be called for in connection with the operation or maintenance of such assets. This section does not apply to agreements that are contracts for services that do not transfer the right to use assets from one contracting party to the other.
  1. 3 Some arrangements, such as some outsourcing arrangements, telecommunication contracts that provide rights to capacity and take-or-pay contracts, do not take the legal form of a lease but convey rights to use assets in return for payments. Such arrangements are in substance leases of assets and they shall be accounted for under this section.

Classification of leases


  1. 4 A lease is classified as a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership.
  1. 5 Whether a lease is a finance lease or an operating lease depends on the substance of the transaction instead of the form of the contract. Examples of situations that individually or in combination would normally lead to a lease being classified as a finance lease are:
    1. the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term;
    2. the lessee has the option to purchase the asset at a price that is expected to be sufficiently lower than the fair value at the date the option becomes exercisable for it to be reasonably certain, at the inception of the lease, that the option will be exercised;
    3. the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset even if title is not transferred;
    4. at the inception of the lease the present value of the minimum lease payments amounts to at least substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset; and
    5. the leased assets are of such a specialised nature that only the lessee can use them without major modifications.
  1. 6 Indicators of situations that individually or in combination could also lead to a lease being classified as a finance lease are:
    1. if the lessee can cancel the lease, the lessor’s losses associated with the cancellation are borne by the lessee;
    2. gains or losses from the fluctuation in the residual value of the leased asset accrue to the lessee (for example, in the form of a rent rebate equalling most of the sales proceeds at the end of the lease); and
    3. the lessee has the ability to continue the lease for a secondary period at a rent that is substantially lower than market rent.
  1. 7 The examples and indicators in paragraphs 20.5 and 20.6 are not always conclusive. If it is clear from other features that the lease does not transfer substantially all risks and rewards incidental to ownership, the lease is classified as an operating lease. For example, this may be the case if ownership of the asset is transferred to the lessee at the end of the lease for a variable payment equal to the asset’s then fair value, or if there are contingent rents, as a result of which the lessee does not have substantially all risks and rewards incidental to ownership.
  1. 8 Lease classification is made at the inception of the lease and is not changed during the term of the lease unless the lessee and the lessor agree to change the provisions of the lease (other than simply by renewing the lease), in which case the lease classification shall be re-evaluated.

Financial statements of lessees—finance leases


Initial recognition

  1. 9 At the commencement of the lease term, a lessee shall recognise its rights of use and obligations under finance leases as assets and liabilities in its statement of financial position at amounts equal to the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments, determined at the

inception of the lease. Any initial direct costs of the lessee (incremental costs that are directly attributable to negotiating and arranging a lease) are added to the amount recognised as an asset.

  1. 10 The present value of the minimum lease payments shall be calculated using the interest rate implicit in the lease. If this cannot be determined, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate shall be used.

Subsequent measurement

  1. 11 A lessee shall apportion minimum lease payments between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability using the effective interest method (see paragraphs 11.15–11.20). The lessee shall allocate the finance charge to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. A lessee shall charge contingent rents as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
  1. 12 A lessee shall depreciate an asset leased under a finance lease in accordance with the relevant section of this Standard for that type of asset, for example, Section 17 Property, Plant and Equipment, Section 18 or Section 19 Business Combinations and Goodwill. If there is no reasonable certainty that the lessee will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset shall be fully depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and its useful life. A lessee shall also assess at each reporting date whether an asset leased under a finance lease is impaired (see Section 27 Impairment of Assets).

Disclosures

  1. 13 A lessee shall make the following disclosures for finance leases:
    1. for each class of asset, the net carrying amount at the end of the reporting period;
    2. the total of future minimum lease payments at the end of the reporting period, for each of the following periods:
      1. not later than one year;
      2. later than one year and not later than five years; and
      3. later than five years.
    3. a general description of the lessee’s significant leasing arrangements including, for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses, subleases and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements.
  1. 14 In addition, the requirements for disclosure about assets in accordance with Sections 17, 18, 27 and 34 apply to lessees for assets leased under finance leases.

Financial statements of lessees—operating leases


Recognition and measurement

  1. 15 A lessee shall recognise lease payments under operating leases (excluding costs for services such as insurance and maintenance) as an expense over the lease term on a straight-line basis unless either:
    1. another systematic basis is representative of the time pattern of the user’s benefit, even if the payments are not on that basis; or
    2. the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation (based on published indexes or statistics) to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.

If payments to the lessor vary because of factors other than general inflation, then the condition (b) is not met.

Example of applying paragraph 20.15(b):

X operates in a jurisdiction in which the consensus forecast by local banks is that the general price level index, as published by the government, will increase by an average of 10 per cent annually over the next five years.

X leases some office space from Y for five years under an operating lease. The lease payments are structured to reflect the expected 10 per cent annual general inflation over the five-year term of the lease as follows

Year 1 CU100,000

Year 2 CU110,000

Year 3 CU121,000

Year 4 CU133,000

Year 5 CU146,000

X recognises annual rent expense equal to the amounts owed to the lessor. If the escalating payments are not clearly structured to compensate the lessor for expected inflationary cost increases based on published indexes or statistics, then X recognises annual rent expense on a straight-line basis: CU122,000 each year (sum of the amounts payable under the lease divided by five years).

Disclosures


  1. 16 A lessee shall make the following disclosures for operating leases:
    1. the total of future minimum lease payments under non-cancellable operating leases for each of the following periods:
      1. not later than one year;
      2. later than one year and not later than five years; and
      3. later than five years.
    2. lease payments recognised as an expense; and
    3. a general description of the lessee’s significant leasing arrangements including, for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses, subleases, and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements.

Financial statements of lessors—finance leases


Initial recognition and measurement

  1. 17 A lessor shall recognise assets held under a finance lease in its statement of financial position and present them as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. The net investment in a lease is the lessor’s gross investment in the lease discounted at the interest rate implicit in the lease. The gross investment in the lease is the aggregate of:
    1. the minimum lease payments receivable by the lessor under a finance lease; and
    2. any unguaranteed residual value accruing to the lessor.
  1. 17 For finance leases other than those involving manufacturer or dealer lessors, initial direct costs (costs that are incremental and directly attributable to negotiating and arranging a lease) are included in the initial measurement of the finance lease receivable and reduce the amount of income recognised over the lease term.

Subsequent measurement

  1. 19 The recognition of finance income shall be based on a pattern reflecting a constant periodic rate of return on the lessor’s net investment in the finance lease. Lease payments relating to the period, excluding costs for services, are applied against the gross investment in the lease to reduce both the principal and the unearned finance income. If there is an indication that the estimated unguaranteed residual value used in computing the lessor’s gross investment in the lease has changed significantly, the income allocation over the lease term is revised, and any reduction in respect of amounts accrued is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

Manufacturer or dealer lessors

  1. 20 Manufacturers or dealers often offer to customers the choice of either buying or leasing an asset. A finance lease of an asset by a manufacturer or dealer lessor gives rise to two types of income:
    1. profit or loss equivalent to the profit or loss resulting from an outright sale of the asset being leased, at normal selling prices, reflecting any applicable volume or trade discounts; and
    2. finance income over the lease term.
  1. 21 The sales revenue recognised at the commencement of the lease term by a manufacturer or dealer lessor is the fair value of the asset or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments accruing to the lessor, computed at a market rate of interest. The cost of sale recognised at the commencement of the lease term is the cost, or carrying amount if different, of the leased asset less the present value of the unguaranteed residual value. The difference between the sales revenue and the cost of sale is the selling profit, which is recognised in accordance with the entity’s policy for outright sales.
  1. 22 If artificially low rates of interest are quoted, selling profit shall be restricted to that which would apply if a market rate of interest were charged. Costs incurred by manufacturer or dealer lessors in connection with negotiating and arranging a lease shall be recognised as an expense when the selling profit is recognised.

Disclosures

  1. 23 A lessor shall make the following disclosures for finance leases:
    1. a reconciliation between the gross investment in the lease at the end of the reporting period and the present value of minimum lease payments receivable at the end of the reporting period. In addition, a lessor shall disclose the gross investment in the lease and the present value of minimum lease payments receivable at the end of the reporting period, for each of the following periods:
      1. not later than one year;
      2. later than one year and not later than five years; and
      3. later than five years.
    2. unearned finance income.
    3. the unguaranteed residual values accruing to the benefit of the lessor.
    4. the accumulated allowance for uncollectable minimum lease payments receivable.
    5. contingent rents recognised as income in the period.
    6. a general description of the lessor’s significant leasing arrangements, including, for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses, subleases, and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements.

Financial statements of lessors—operating leases


Recognition and measurement

  1. 24 A lessor shall present assets subject to operating leases in its statement of financial position according to the nature of the asset.
  1. 25 A lessor shall recognise lease income from operating leases (excluding amounts for services such as insurance and maintenance) in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless either:
    1. another systematic basis is representative of the time pattern of the lessee’s benefit from the leased asset, even if the receipt of payments is not on that basis; or
    2. the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation (based on published indexes or statistics) to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases. If payments to the lessor vary according to factors other than inflation, then condition (b) is not met.
  1. 26 A lessor shall recognise as an expense costs, including depreciation, incurred in earning the lease income. The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets shall be consistent with the lessor’s normal depreciation policy for similar assets.
  1. 27 A lessor shall add to the carrying amount of the leased asset any initial direct costs it incurs in negotiating and arranging an operating lease and shall recognise such costs as an expense over the lease term on the same basis as the lease income.
  1. 28 To determine whether a leased asset has become impaired, a lessor shall apply Section 27.
  1. 29 A manufacturer or dealer lessor does not recognise any selling profit on entering into an operating lease because it is not the equivalent of a sale.

Disclosures


  1. 30 A lessor shall disclose the following for operating leases:
    1. the future minimum lease payments under non-cancellable operating leases for each of the following periods:
      1. not later than one year;
      2. later than one year and not later than five years; and
      3. later than five years.
    2. total contingent rents recognised as income; and
    3. a general description of the lessor’s significant leasing arrangements, including, for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements.
  1. 31 In addition, the requirements for disclosure about assets in accordance with Sections 17, 18, 27 and 34 apply to lessors for assets provided under operating leases.

Sale and leaseback transactions


  1. 32 A sale and leaseback transaction involves the sale of an asset and the leasing back of the same asset. The lease payment and the sale price are usually interdependent because they are negotiated as a package. The accounting treatment of a sale and leaseback transaction depends on the type of lease.

Sale and leaseback transaction results in a finance lease

  1. 33 If a sale and leaseback transaction results in a finance lease, the seller-lessee shall not recognise immediately, as income, any excess of sales proceeds over the carrying amount. Instead, the seller-lessee shall defer such excess and amortise it over the lease term.

Sale and leaseback transaction results in an operating lease

  1. 34 If a sale and leaseback transaction results in an operating lease, and it is clear that the transaction is established at fair value, the seller-lessee shall recognise any profit or loss immediately. If the sale price is below fair value, the seller-lessee shall recognise any profit or loss immediately unless the loss is compensated for by future lease payments at below market price. In that case the seller-lessee shall defer and amortise such loss in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is above fair value, the seller-lessee shall defer the excess over fair value and amortise it over the period for which the asset is expected to be used.

Disclosures

  1. 35 Disclosure requirements for lessees and lessors apply equally to sale and leaseback transactions. The required description of significant leasing arrangements includes description of unique or unusual provisions of the agreement or terms of the sale and leaseback transactions.

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