Docy Child

INCOME TAX

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Section 29

Income Tax

Scope of this section


  1. 1 For the purpose of this Standard, income tax includes all domestic and foreign taxes that are based on taxable profit. Income tax also includes taxes, such as withholding taxes, that are payable by a subsidiary, associate or joint venture on distributions to the reporting entity.
  1. 2 This section covers accounting for income tax. It requires an entity to recognise the current and future tax consequences of transactions and other events that have been recognised in the financial statements. These recognised tax amounts comprise current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is income tax payable (recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for the current period or past periods. Deferred tax is income tax payable or recoverable in future periods, generally as a result of the entity recovering or settling its assets and liabilities for their current carrying amount, and the tax effect of the carryforward of currently unused tax losses and tax credits.
  1. 3 This section does not deal with the methods of accounting for government grants (see Section 24 Government Grants). However, this section does deal with the accounting for temporary differences that may arise from such grants.

Recognition and measurement of current tax


  1. 4 An entity shall recognise a current tax liability for tax payable on taxable profit for the current and past periods. If the amount paid for the current and past periods exceeds the amount payable for those periods, the entity shall recognise the excess as a current tax asset.
  1. 5 An entity shall recognise a current tax asset for the benefit of a tax loss that can be carried back to recover tax paid in a previous period.
  1. 6 An entity shall measure a current tax liability (asset) at the amount it expects to pay (recover) using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. An entity shall regard tax rates and tax laws as substantively enacted when the remaining steps in the enactment process have not affected the outcome in the past and are unlikely to do so. Paragraphs 29.32–29.33 provide additional measurement guidance.

Recognition of deferred tax

General recognition principle

  1. 7 It is inherent in the recognition of an asset or a liability that the reporting entity expects to recover or settle the carrying amount of that asset or liability. If it is probable that recovery or settlement of that carrying amount will make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences, this section requires an entity to recognise a deferred tax liability (deferred tax asset) with certain limited exceptions. If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount of an asset or settle the carrying amount of a liability without affecting taxable profit, no deferred tax arises in respect of the asset or liability.
  1. 8 An entity shall recognise a deferred tax asset or liability for tax recoverable or payable in future periods as a result of past transactions or events. Such tax arises from the differences between the carrying amounts of the entity’s assets and liabilities in the statement of financial position and the amounts attributed to those assets and liabilities by the tax authorities (such differences are called ‘temporary differences’), and the carryforward of currently unused tax losses and tax credits.

Tax bases and temporary differences

  1. 9 The tax base of an asset is the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes against any taxable economic benefits that will flow to an entity when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset. If those economic benefits will not be taxable, the tax base of the asset is equal to its carrying amount.
  1. 10 The tax base of a liability is its carrying amount less any amount that will be deductible for tax purposes in respect of that liability in future periods. In the case of revenue that is received in advance, the tax base of the resulting liability is its carrying amount less any amount of the revenue that will not be taxable in future periods.
  1. 11 Some items have a tax base but are not recognised as assets and liabilities in the statement of financial position. For example, research and development costs are recognised as an expense when determining accounting profit in the period in which they are incurred but may not be permitted as a deduction when determining taxable profit (tax loss) until a later period. The difference between the tax base of the research and development costs, being the amount that the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods, and the carrying amount of nil is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset.
  1. 12 Temporary differences are differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the statement of financial position and its tax base. In consolidated financial statements, temporary differences are determined by comparing the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements with the appropriate tax base. The tax base is determined by reference to a consolidated tax return in those jurisdictions in which such a return is filed. In other jurisdictions, the tax base is determined by reference to the tax returns of each entity in the group.
  1. 13 Examples of situations in which temporary differences arise include:
    1. the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recognised at their fair values in accordance with Section 19 Business Combinations and Goodwill, but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes (for example, the tax base of an asset may remain at cost to the previous owner). The resulting deferred tax asset or liability affects the amount of goodwill that an entity recognises.
    2. assets are remeasured but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes. For example, this Standard permits or requires certain assets to be remeasured at fair value or to be revalued (for example, Section 16 Investment Property and Section 17 Property, Plant and Equipment).
    3. goodwill arises in a business combination, for example, the tax base of goodwill will be nil if taxation authorities do not allow the amortisation or the impairment of goodwill as a deductible expense when taxable profit is determined and do not permit the cost of goodwill to be treated as a deductible expense on disposal of the subsidiary.
    4. the tax base of an asset or a liability on initial recognition differs from its initial carrying amount.
    5. the carrying amount of investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint ventures becomes different from the tax base of the investment or interest.

Not all of these temporary differences will give rise to deferred tax assets and liabilities (see paragraphs 29.14 and 29.16).

Taxable temporary differences

  1. 14 A deferred tax liability shall be recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except to the extent that the deferred tax liability arises from:
    1. the initial recognition of goodwill; or
    2. the initial recognition of an asset or a liability in a transaction that:
      1. is not a business combination; and
      2. at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint ventures, a deferred tax liability shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 29.25.

  1. 15 Some temporary differences arise when income or expense is included in accounting profit in one period but is included in taxable profit in a different period. Such temporary differences are often described as timing differences. The following are examples of temporary differences of this kind that are taxable temporary differences and that therefore result in deferred tax liabilities:
    1. interest revenue is included in accounting profit on a time-proportion basis but may, in some jurisdictions, be included in taxable profit when cash is collected. The tax base of any receivable with respect to such revenues is nil, because the revenues do not affect taxable profit until cash is collected.
    2. depreciation used when determining taxable profit (tax loss) may differ from that used when determining accounting profit. The temporary difference is the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its tax base, which is the original cost of the asset less all deductions in respect of that asset permitted by the taxation authorities when determining taxable profit of the current and prior periods. A taxable temporary difference arises, and results in a deferred tax liability, when tax depreciation is accelerated. If the tax depreciation is less rapid than the accounting depreciation, a deductible temporary difference arises resulting in a deferred tax asset (see paragraph 29.16).

Deductible temporary differences

  1. 16 A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised, unless the deferred tax asset arises from the initial recognition of an asset or a liability in a transaction that:
    1. is not a business combination; and
    2. at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and for interests in joint ventures, a deferred tax asset shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 29.26.

  1. 17 The following are examples of deductible temporary differences that result in deferred tax assets:
    1. retirement benefit costs may be deducted when determining accounting profit at the time that the service is provided by the employee, but deducted when determining taxable profit either when contributions are paid to a fund by the entity or when retirement benefits are paid by the entity. A temporary difference exists between the carrying amount of the liability and its tax base; the tax base of the liability is usually nil. Such a deductible temporary difference results in a deferred tax asset because economic benefits will flow to the entity in the form of a deduction from taxable profits when contributions or retirement benefits are paid.
    2. certain assets may be carried at fair value, without an equivalent adjustment being made for tax purposes. A deductible temporary difference arises if the tax base of the asset exceeds its carrying amount.
  1. 18 The reversal of deductible temporary differences results in deductions when taxable profits of future periods are determined. It is probable that taxable profit will be available against which a deductible temporary difference can be utilised when there are sufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity that are expected to reverse:
    1. in the same period as the expected reversal of the deductible temporary difference; or
    2. in periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward.

In such circumstances, the deferred tax asset is recognised in the period in which the deductible temporary differences arise.

  1. 19 When there are insufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, the deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that:
    1. it is probable that the entity will have sufficient taxable profit relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity in the same period as the reversal of the deductible temporary difference (or in the periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward). When evaluating whether it will have sufficient taxable profit in future periods, an entity ignores taxable amounts arising from deductible temporary differences that are expected to originate in future periods, because the deferred tax asset arising from those deductible temporary differences will itself require future taxable profit in order to be utilised.
    2. tax planning opportunities are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in appropriate periods.
  1. 20 When an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity considers the guidance in paragraphs 29.21–29.22.

Unused tax losses and unused tax credits

  1. 21 A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for the carryforward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilised. When assessing the probability that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised, an entity considers the following criteria:
    1. whether the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, which will result in taxable amounts against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised before they expire;
    2. whether it is probable that the entity will have taxable profits before the unused tax losses or unused tax credits expire;
    3. whether the unused tax losses result from identifiable causes which are unlikely to recur; and
    4. whether tax planning opportunities are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in the period in which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised.

To the extent that it is not probable that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised, the deferred tax asset is not recognised.

  1. 22 The existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Consequently, when an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset arising from unused tax losses or tax credits only to the extent that the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences or to the extent that there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised by the entity.

Reassessment of unrecognised deferred tax assets

  1. 23 At the end of each reporting period, an entity reassesses any unrecognised deferred tax assets. The entity recognises a previously unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint ventures

  1. 24 Temporary differences arise when the carrying amount of investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint ventures (for example, in the parent’s consolidated financial statements the carrying amount of a subsidiary is the net consolidated assets of that subsidiary, including the carrying amount of any related goodwill) becomes different from the tax base (which is often cost) of the investment or interest. Such differences may arise in a number of different circumstances, for example:
    1. the existence of undistributed profits of subsidiaries, branches, associates and joint ventures;
    2. changes in foreign exchange rates when a parent and its subsidiary are based in different countries; and
    3. a reduction in the carrying amount of an investment in an associate to its recoverable amount.

Investments may be accounted for differently in the parent’s separate financial statements compared to the consolidated financial statements, in which case the temporary difference associated with that investment may also differ. For example, in the parent’s separate financial statement the carrying amount of a subsidiary will depend on the accounting policy chosen in paragraph 9.26.

  1. 25 An entity shall recognise a deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:
    1. the parent, investor or venturer is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and
    2. it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
  1. 26 An entity shall recognise a deferred tax asset for all deductible temporary differences arising from investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint ventures, only to the extent that it is probable that:
    1. the temporary difference will reverse in the foreseeable future; and
    2. taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.

Measurement of deferred tax


  1. 27 An entity shall measure a deferred tax liability (asset) using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. An entity shall regard tax rates and tax laws as substantively enacted when the remaining steps in the enactment process have not affected the outcome in the past and are unlikely to do so.
  1. 28 When different tax rates apply to different levels of taxable profit, an entity shall measure deferred tax liabilities (assets) using the average enacted or substantively enacted rates that it expects to be applicable to the taxable profit (tax loss) of the periods in which it expects the deferred tax liability to be settled (deferred tax asset to be realised).
  1. 29 The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets shall reflect the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the entity expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of the related assets and liabilities. Consequently, an entity measures deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets using the tax rate and the tax base that are consistent with the expected manner of recovery or settlement. For example, if the temporary difference arises from an item of income that is expected to be taxable as a capital gain in a future period, the deferred tax expense is measured using the capital gain tax rate and the tax base that is consistent with recovering the carrying amount through sale.
  1. 30 If a deferred tax liability or deferred tax asset arises from a non-depreciable asset measured using the revaluation model in Section 17, the measurement of the deferred tax liability or deferred tax asset shall reflect the tax consequences of recovering the carrying amount of the non-depreciable asset through sale. If a deferred tax liability or asset arises from investment property that is measured at fair value, there is a rebuttable presumption that the carrying amount of the investment property will be recovered through sale. Accordingly, unless the presumption is rebutted, the measurement of the deferred tax liability or the deferred tax asset shall reflect the tax consequences of recovering the carrying amount of the investment property entirely through sale. This presumption is rebutted if the investment property is depreciable and is held within a business model whose objective is to consume substantially all of the economic benefits embodied in the investment property over time, instead of through sale. If the presumption is rebutted, the requirements of paragraph 29.29 shall be followed.
  1. 31 The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset shall be reviewed at the end of each reporting period. An entity shall reduce the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that recognised deferred tax asset to be utilised. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.

Measurement of both current and deferred tax

  1. 32 An entity shall not discount current or deferred tax assets and liabilities.
  1. 33 In some jurisdictions, income tax is payable at a higher or lower rate if part or all of the profit or retained earnings is paid out as a dividend to shareholders of the entity. In other jurisdictions, income tax may be refundable or payable if part or all of the profit or retained earnings is paid out as a dividend to shareholders of the entity. In both of those circumstances, an entity shall measure current and deferred tax at the tax rate applicable to undistributed profits until the entity recognises a liability to pay a dividend. When the entity recognises a liability to pay a dividend, it shall recognise the resulting current or deferred tax liability (asset) and the related tax expense (income).

Withholding tax on dividends


  1. 34 When an entity pays dividends to its shareholders, it may be required to pay a portion of the dividends to taxation authorities on behalf of shareholders. Such an amount paid or payable to taxation authorities is charged to equity as a part of the dividends.

Presentation


Allocation in comprehensive income and equity

  1. 35 An entity shall recognise tax expense in the same component of total comprehensive income (ie continuing operations, discontinued operations or other comprehensive income) or equity as the transaction or other event that resulted in the tax expense.

Current/non-current distinction

  1. 36 When an entity presents current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications in its statement of financial position, it shall not classify any deferred tax assets (liabilities) as current assets (liabilities).

Offsetting

  1. 37 An entity shall offset current tax assets and current tax liabilities, or offset deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if, and only if, it has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and the entity can demonstrate without undue cost or effort that it plans either to settle on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Disclosures

  1. 38 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effect of the current and deferred tax consequences of recognised transactions and other events.
  1. 39 An entity shall disclose separately the major components of tax expense (income). Such components of tax expense (income) may include:
    1. current tax expense (income);
    2. any adjustments recognised in the period for current tax of prior periods;
    3. the amount of deferred tax expense (income) relating to the origination and reversal of temporary differences;
    4. the amount of deferred tax expense (income) relating to changes in tax rates or the imposition of new taxes;
    5. the amount of the benefit arising from a previously unrecognised tax loss, tax credit or temporary difference of a prior period that is used to reduce tax expense;
    6. adjustments to deferred tax expense (income) arising from a change in the tax status of the entity or its shareholders;
    7. deferred tax expense (income) arising from the write-down, or reversal of a previous write-down, of a deferred tax asset in accordance with paragraph 29.31; and
    8. the amount of tax expense (income) relating to those changes in accounting policies and errors that are included in profit or loss in accordance with Section 10 Accounting Policies, Estimates and Errors, because they cannot be accounted for retrospectively.
  1. 40 An entity shall disclose the following separately:
    1. the aggregate current and deferred tax relating to items that are recognised as items of other comprehensive income.
    2. the aggregate current and deferred tax relating to items that are charged or credited directly to equity.
    3. an explanation of any significant differences between the tax expense (income) and accounting profit multiplied by the applicable tax rate. For example such differences may arise from transactions such as revenue that are exempt from taxation or expenses that are not deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss).
    4. an explanation of changes in the applicable tax rate(s) compared with the previous reporting period.
    5. for each type of temporary difference and for each type of unused tax losses and tax credits:
      1. the amount of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets at the end of the reporting period; and
      2. an analysis of the change in deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets during the period.
    6. the amount (and expiry date, if any) of deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses and unused tax credits for which no deferred tax asset is recognised in the statement of financial position.
    7. in the circumstances described in paragraph 29.33, an explanation of the nature of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to its shareholders.
  1. 41 If an entity does not offset tax assets and liabilities in accordance with paragraph 29.37 because it is unable to demonstrate without undue cost or effort that it plans to settle them on a net basis or realise them simultaneously, the entity shall disclose the amounts that have not been offset and the reasons why applying the requirement would involve undue cost or effort.

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