Docy Child

ACCOUNTING POLICIES ESTIMATES AND ERRORS

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Accounting Policies, Estimates and Errors

Scope of this section


  1. 1 This section provides guidance for selecting and applying the accounting policies used in preparing financial statements. It also covers changes in accounting estimates and corrections of errors in prior period financial statements.

Selection and application of accounting policies


  1. 2 Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.
  1. 3 If this Standard specifically addresses a transaction, other event or condition, an entity shall apply this Standard. However, the entity need not follow a requirement in this Standard if the effect of doing so would not be material.
  1. 4 If this Standard does not specifically address a transaction, other event or condition, an entity’s management shall use its judgement in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that is:
    1. relevantto the economic decision-making needs of users; and
    2. reliable, in that the financial statements:
      1. represent   faithfully   the    financial      position,    financial performance and cash flows of the entity;
      2. reflect the economic substance of transactions, other events and conditions, and not merely the legal form;
      3. are neutral, ie free from bias;
      4. are prudent; and
      5. are complete in all material respects.
  1. 5 In making the judgement described in paragraph 10.4, management shall refer to, and consider the applicability of, the following sources in descending order:
    1. the requirements and guidance in this Standard dealing with similar and related issues; and
    2. the definitions, recognition criteria and measurement concepts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses and the pervasive principles in Section 2 Concepts and Pervasive Principles.
  1. 6 In making the judgement described in paragraph 10.4, management may also consider the requirements and guidance in full IFRS dealing with similar and related issues.

Consistency of accounting policies


  1. 7 An entity shall select and apply its accounting policies consistently for similar transactions, other events and conditions, unless this Standard specifically requires or permits categorisation of items for which different policies may be appropriate. If this Standard requires or permits such categorisation, an appropriate accounting policy shall be selected and applied consistently to each category.

Changes in accounting policies


  1. 8 An entity shall change an accounting policy only if the change:
    1. is required by changes to this Standard; or
    2. results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity’s financial position, financial performance or cash flows
  1. 9 The following are not changes in accounting policies:
    1. the application of an accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that differ in substance from those previously occurring;
    2. the application of a new accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that did not occur previously or were not material; or
    3. a change to the cost model when a reliable measure of fair value is no longer available (or vice versa) for an asset that this Standard would otherwise require or permit to be measured at fair value.
  1. 10 If this Standard allows a choice of accounting treatment (including the measurement basis) for a specified transaction or other event or condition and an entity changes its previous choice, that is a change in accounting policy.
  1. 10A The initial application of a policy to revalue assets in accordance with Section 17 Property, Plant and Equipment is a change in an accounting policy to be dealt with as a revaluation in accordance with Section 17. Consequently, a change from the cost model to the revaluation model for a class of property, plant and equipment shall be accounted for prospectively, instead of in accordance with paragraphs 10.11–10.12.

Applying changes in accounting policies

  1. 11 An entity shall account for changes in accounting policy as follows:
    1. an entity shall account for a change in accounting policy resulting from a change in the requirements of this Standard in accordance with the transitional provisions, if any, specified in that amendment;
    2. when an entity has elected to follow IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement instead of following Section 11 Basic Financial Instruments and Section 12 Other Financial Instrument Issues as permitted by paragraph 11.2, and the requirements of IAS 39 change, the entity shall account for that change in accounting policy in accordance with the transitional provisions, if any, specified in the revised IAS 39; and
    3. an entity shall account for all other changes in accounting policy retrospectively (see paragraph 10.12).

Retrospective application

  1. 12 When a change in accounting policy is applied retrospectively in accordance with paragraph 10.11, the entity shall apply the new accounting policy to comparative information for prior periods to the earliest date for which it is practicable, as if the new accounting policy had always been applied. When it is impracticable to determine the individual-period effects of a change in accounting policy on comparative information for one or more prior periods presented, the entity shall apply the new accounting policy to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities as at the beginning of the earliest period for which retrospective application is practicable, which may be the current period, and shall make a corresponding adjustment to the opening balance of each affected component of equity for that period.

Disclosure of a change in accounting policy

  1. 13 When an amendment to this Standard has an effect on the current period or any prior period, or might have an effect on future periods, an entity shall disclose the following:
    1. the nature of the change in accounting policy;
    2. for the current period and each prior period presented, to the extent practicable, the amount of the adjustment for each financial statement line item affected;
    3. the amount of the adjustment relating to periods before those presented, to the extent practicable; and
    4. an explanation if it is impracticable to determine the amounts to be disclosed in (b) or (c).

Financial statements of subsequent periods need not repeat these disclosures.

  1. 14 When a voluntary change in accounting policy has an effect on the current period or any prior period, an entity shall disclose the following:
    1. the nature of the change in accounting policy;
    2. the reasons why applying the new accounting policy provides reliable and more relevant information;
    3. to the extent practicable, the amount of the adjustment for each financial statement line item affected, shown separately:
      1. for the current period;
      2. for each prior period presented; and
      3. in the aggregate for periods before those presented.
    4. an explanation if it is impracticable to determine the amounts to be disclosed in (c).

Financial statements of subsequent periods need not repeat these disclosures

Changes in accounting estimates

  1. 15 A change in accounting estimate is an adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected future benefits and obligations associated with, assets and liabilities. Changes in accounting estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not corrections of errors. When it is difficult to distinguish a change in an accounting policy from a change in an accounting estimate, the change is treated as a change in an accounting estimate.
  1. 16 An entity shall recognise the effect of a change in an accounting estimate, other than a change to which paragraph 10.17 applies, prospectivelyby including it in profit or loss in:
    1. the period of the change, if the change affects that period only; or
    2. the period of the change and future periods, if the change affects both
  1. 17 To the extent that a change in an accounting estimate gives rise to changes in assets and liabilities, or relates to an item of equity, the entity shall recognise it by adjusting the carrying amount of the related asset, liability or equity item in the period of the change.

Disclosure of a change in estimate

  1. 18 An entity shall disclose the nature of any change in an accounting estimate and the effect of the change on assets, liabilities, income and expense for the current period. If it is practicable for the entity to estimate the effect of the change in one or more future periods, the entity shall disclose those estimates.

Corrections of prior period errors


  1. 19 Prior period errors are omissions from, and misstatements in, an entity’s financial statements for one or more prior periods arising from a failure to use, or misuse of, reliable information that:
    1. was available when financial statements for those periods were authorised for issue; and
    2. could reasonably be expected to have been obtained and taken into account in the preparation and presentation of those financial statements.
  1. 20 Such errors include the effects of mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying accounting policies, oversights or misinterpretations of facts and fraud.
  1. 21 To the extent practicable, an entity shall correct a material prior period error retrospectively in the first financial statements authorised for issue after its discovery by:
    1. restating the comparative amounts for the prior period(s) presented in which the error occurred; or
    2. if the error occurred before the earliest prior period presented, restating the opening balances of assets, liabilities and equity for the earliest prior period presented.
  1. 22 When it is impracticable to determine the effects of an error on comparative information for one or more prior periods presented, the entity shall restate the opening balances of assets, liabilities and equity for the earliest period for which retrospective restatement is practicable (which may be the current period).

Disclosure of prior period errors

  1. 23 An entity shall disclose the following about prior period errors:
    1. the nature of the prior period error;
    2. for each prior period presented, to the extent practicable, the amount of the correction for each financial statement line item affected;
    3. to the extent practicable, the amount of the correction at the beginning of the earliest prior period presented; and
    4. an explanation if it is not practicable to determine the amounts to be disclosed in (b) or (c).

Financial statements of subsequent periods need not repeat these disclosures.

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